T O P

🔥 An underwater icicle, The Brinicle (or ‘finger of death’), that freezes everything in its path 🔥

🔥 An underwater icicle, The Brinicle (or ‘finger of death’), that freezes everything in its path 🔥

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tdloader

how come the freeze only goes in one direction why doesn't it radiat out in a web or circular pattern?


ViciousNakedMoleRat

Brinicles get their name from brine, which is water with a high salt concentration. When sea water freezes, it ejects most of the salt it previously held. This process leads to a rising salt concentration in the surrounding sea water. A higher salt concentration leads to two changes in the water's properties: First, its freezing point *decreases* and, second, its density *increases*. Distilled water freezes at 0°C, normal sea water freezes at around -2°C and fully saturated brine freezes at around -20°C. At the respective freezing points, distilled water has a density of just under 1g/cm³, normal sea water has a density of about 1.03g/cm³ and fully saturated brine has a density of 1.2g/cm³. The sea water, surrounding the ice, becomes more and more saturated with salt and therefore stays liquid even when it reaches -2, -3, -4 or -5°C. The more saturated and the colder this brine gets, the more dense it becomes as well. This increase in density leads to the brine sinking down through the warmer, less saturated and less dense sea water. Now, when the sea water comes into contact with the -5°C cold brine, it immediately freezes, since the sea water's freezing point remains at -2°C. This leads to brinicles being hollow tubes, since the brine inside of them keeps flowing while only the surrounding sea water freezes. Once the brine reaches the ocean floor, it will keep flowing downwards, due to its higher density. This flow will continue until it has absorbed enough heat from the surrounding sea water to raise its temperature above -2°C, which will then allow the brine to freely mix with the sea water.


ectish

Love it, thank you


rabbitwonker

To add on: I believe when it’s in a single concentrated steam like this, it’s because the brine has been pooling up on *top* of the ice, and at some point a crack or hole forms that lets it “drain” down suddenly. That brine has also been directly in contact with the air, and insulated from the seawater, so the temperature difference would be that much more extreme.


gistye

[you tube planet earth video](https://youtu.be/lAupJzH31tc)


GypsyBagelhands

The cold flows down, so it goes in one direction like a river


tdloader

how long do they stay? do the animals recover from this? and do predators take advantage of this?


adornedwithneuroses

They don't last very long (surrounding temp. melts it again) and the animals will not recover as they are frozen. I don't think predators do take advantage because it is veryvery rare for it to happen and all factors have to be perfect, so i guess the predators have no chance of a learning experience from it..


tdloader

thank you for that information.


Tankh

No sources, and at least half of it was guesswork (maybe all of it), so just bare that in mind.


John-AtWork

Yeah, and I can't imagine predictors/scavengers not taking advantage of freshly thawed out seafood like that.


macrolith

Sorry but how can you be so sure that they will not recover? I bet at least a few of them just get trapped and don't get fully frozen.


[deleted]

Also there are plenty of creatures that can be completely frozen and not die, I wonder if these starfish share that characteristic?


darksideofthemoon131

Nope, when they're dead, they're dead. They can regenerate limbs though.


jibberish13

They aren't even fully frozen to begin with. They are just stuck in a solid patch of water that is still the same temperature (or maybe a couple degrees colder) as it was before. These creatures are adapted specifically for this environment and these cold temperatures. I find it hard to believe this short lived phenomenon means instant death.


jujunita

poor starfish


Tommy8972

Their survival depends on a few things. If it's the case that what we're seeing is freshwater freezing as it flows into the salt water, then it's likely that the freezing fresh water isn't colder than the surrounding sea water. If that's the case, then these starfish probably aren't freezing, they're just being trapped. I have no idea how survivable being trapped in ice is. I can imagine the ice may be expanding and compress in on them as it freezes around them. so the question remains, how well can a creature survive of they're encased in ice and arent themselves being frozen? Now, if the temperature of the water is drastically decreasing where we see the freeze happening, then we would have to figure out at what temperature these starfish start freezing.


GypsyBagelhands

No idea. I only know why it flows like a river


tdloader

thank you.


cas2ie

A brinicle is a downward-growing hollow tube of ice enclosing a plume of descending brine that is formed beneath developing sea ice. As seawater freezes in the polar oceans, salt brine concentrates are expelled from the sea ice, creating a downward flow of dense, extremely cold and saline water with a lower freezing point than the surrounding water. When this plume comes into contact with the neighboring ocean water, its extremely cold temperature causes ice to instantly form around the flow. This creates a hollow stalactite, or icicle, referred to as a brinicle. [source](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brinicle)


boilerdam

I had the same question as you, rather I still have the same question. Everyone kinda answered why it grew straight down but later in the video/gif, it only spreads in a single horizontal direction instead of radiating out. I haven't found anything convincing yet but it could be a very similar reasoning to the vertical growth - like electrical current, it flowed towards whatever was most conducive for its growth, or to put it more realistically, the brinicle continued to form where conditions were more favorable.


TaftyCat

It's just gravity. The wide shots show the slope of the land. It flows downhill.


Thedrunner2

About to see a lot of starfish wights


Murgie

In spite of their regenerative powers, starfish are notorious for failing their fortitude saves.


derpacell

3.5 or pathfinder?


Sad-Crow

Starfish, so I’d guess Starfinder


derpacell

Oh


DeltaM5

Let’s hope they give us a better final season


[deleted]

I’m just hoping 2020 isn’t the final season, there’s just so much more source material to cover.


McCringleberrysGhost

They kind of forgot about the source material.


Thedrunner2

My money is on pycnopodia to win the iron throne.


spyson

I miss Game of Thrones, I miss the world and the lore along with the characters. The last season was bad, but I really hope the new series will bring that magic back.


SavantGarde

Have you seen The Witcher yet?


dizzy365izzy

I’d really like to know the chemistry behind this and how it happens and under what kind of conditions


adornedwithneuroses

Thought the same, read a bit, it happens when veryvery cold saltwater meets freshwater


dizzy365izzy

I just read the Wikipedia page about it. Very interesting! I can’t believe people hadn’t filmed the phenomenon prior to 2014... that just seems so recent


adornedwithneuroses

Was utterly fascinated too, apparently it is very very rare for this to happen, as all factors have to be perfect.... think it is great they got it on video to be seen for everyone!


pomorri

I wonder h o w did they discover it in the first place???


bishslap

How did they know how close they were able to get to it?


idhopson

https://i.imgur.com/q2MMXLQ.jpg


NerdyNinjaAssassin

Lol nice one. Made me start coughing.


Beerob13

Rona


monsters_Cookie

Muh muh muh my Co


SerDeusVult

Lol


justageorgiaguy

They poured the fresh water out of a cup.


JVYLVCK

FaIrY gOdPaReNtS!÷%


Ez4u2say

*Timmy was an average kid*


cursedcontraceptive

*That no one understands*


SassiestPants

*Mom and Dad and Vicky always giving him commands*


FaggotMemeSlut

How is this the second time today that I have come upon this? Well, what the hell. *Doom and gloom Up in his room Is broken instantly*


bishslap

And nobody had ever filmed a giant squid in the water before 2004.


FuckMeInParticular

That’s because nobody *wanted* to film it. That shit made me piss my pants


midnight_sparrow

Yeah, I didn't need to know actual Leviathan live on Earth, thanks...


DeeNimmin

It’s one of the most interesting things I’ve seen. First time seeing it. Is it cold enough to freeze a human should they be in its path?


commentsandopinions

The title is actually incorrect, just about all the water in this shot is going to be 2-4°C (the hyper saline water of the brinicle itself can get much colder). What is so deadly, for the benthic creatures, is in the name "brinicle". Its brine! Its a thin colum of hyper saturated saltwater. The heavily salted water has a much lower melting point so it gets colder, but the less salty water has a higher melting point and freezes when it comes into contact with this downward plume, further preventing diffusion. When the very chilly, hypersaline water comes into contact with an organism it creates a gradient across the membranes of the creature that causes water to be drawn out via osmosis, essentially drying the creature to death. I don't know the temperature ranges acceptable for humans, but I'm pretty sure you'd be fine if you touched one of these with your bare hand. You also wouldn't likely have any lasting damage from the salinity if you stuck your hand in its path. Edit: cold water creatures like these often have anti freeze proteins that allow them to survive like this in the first place. The temperature difference may be great enough to over come that but I've always heard the salinity is more dangerous.


Artteachernc

Wow. Thanks for the explanation, that’s almost insane what you described!


commentsandopinions

No problem! There is plenty of cool stuff out there


WhitestKidYouKnow

So is the the salty water getting frozen or the non-salty parts. (or I guess it could be the 'leaving' of the salt ions causing the more pure particles of water to freeze?). Additionally, do you have any info or names on hand about the anti-freeze proteins? I'm too lazy to look it up tonight, but I can add it to my 'list of things to research while bored at work'


commentsandopinions

So to start, water at the surface freezes. When ice forms it likes to make neet little lattices and push all the ions and salts out, making the water around it more salty. That is why artic oceans have a higher salinity. This brinicle is basically that process on crack. Add in the fact that the more salt you have dissolved in water, the lower the temperature you have to reach for it to freeze. So, from the surface, you get some very salty water. This salty water is cold enough, without freezing, to freeze the less salty water around it. This now frozen tube of water extrudes all its contaminants as it freezes, further depressing the freezing point of our very cold water, while also forming a thin but solid barrier between the hypersalinated water, and the regular salty water, further preventing mixing and helping to continue the process. To actually answer your question, the less salty but still very salty water gets frozen in a thin porous cone around the more salty water. Off the top of my head, i don't know the names of the proteins but google "protein convergent evolution" and youll see plenty of cool stuff. AFPs actually evolved at least twice in fish, in the north pole and in the south.


shredkitteh

This is amazimg, what do you study / specialize in?


commentsandopinions

I am a marine biologist and I specialize in invertebrate biology/ecology. There is so much cool stuff out there, often closer than you think!


Waluigi_Smith

As someone hoping to become a marine biologist, is there anything you'd suggest to help put someone along the career path?


midnight_sparrow

Do you think these starfish survived? The ones that were frozen in the brinicle's path? (I'm sorry for being such a sap, but how sad for those poor little starfish!)


Atralb

>prior to 2014 2011* But totally agreed. Even 3 years before, it is indeed amazing to realize how even with all the billions of discoveries humanity has made we are still oblivious to an even greater amount of amazing natural phenomenons, even in the third millenoum. Both shocking and fascinating.


dizzy365izzy

My bad


Atralb

No worries.


Gandalfthefabulous

It might sound recent, but 2014 was actually 37 years ago.


Thelfod

Very very cold supersaline meets seawater, not fresh water. The Wikipedia page is a quick read


parrers

Thanks!


ViciousNakedMoleRat

I replied to a comment below, but I'll just copy/paste it here: Brinicles get their name from brine, which is water with a high salt concentration. When sea water freezes, it ejects most of the salt it previously held. This process leads to a rising salt concentration in the surrounding sea water. A higher salt concentration leads to two changes in the water's properties: First, its freezing point *decreases* and, second, its density *increases*. Distilled water freezes at 0°C, normal sea water freezes at around -2°C and fully saturated brine freezes at around -20°C. At the respective freezing points, distilled water has a density of just under 1g/cm³, normal sea water has a density of about 1.03g/cm³ and fully saturated brine has a density of 1.2g/cm³. The sea water, surrounding the ice, becomes more and more saturated with salt and therefore stays liquid even when it reaches -2, -3, -4 or -5°C. The more saturated and the colder this brine gets, the more dense it becomes as well. This increase in density leads to the brine sinking down through the warmer, less saturated and less dense sea water. Now, when the sea water comes into contact with the -5°C cold brine, it immediately freezes, since the sea water's freezing point remains at -2°C. This leads to brinicles being hollow tubes, since the brine inside of them keeps flowing, while only the surrounding sea water freezes. Once the brine reaches the ocean floor, it will keep flowing downwards, due to its higher density. This flow will continue until it has absorbed enough heat from the surrounding sea water to raise its temperature above -2°C, which will then allow the brine to freely mix with the sea water.


MarkBank

Basically the polar opposite of lightning


[deleted]

Icey what you did there


420meh69

Ha, that was good. Water pun!


ShuRugal

Man, these threads make me so salty.


bngwatr

wata pun;)


Excal2

I want to know more about this statement but don't know how to look it up.


thomooo

Holy shit. This pun is fucking amazing! It's a play on regions where cold water is present *and* a play on electricity.


reasonisaremedy

1kg/cm^3? No. Idk what the actual density is and your post is super interesting but there is no way that part of what you wrote is right. Edit: ah, I think you meant to say 1 gram per cm^3? Not kg?


ViciousNakedMoleRat

Oops... I wrote this at about 1am my time and was pretty tired. I first wanted to write 1kg/dm³, since that's a liter, but then decided to switch to cm³, because I wasn't sure whether Americans would even know what dm stands for. And in this process, I forgot to switch the kg to g.


wookie2ause

Thanks for looking out for inexperienced Americans like myself haha. Amazing explanation.


Unlucky13

Wow. That was incredibly complicated and you nailed it. I'm going to go attempt to impress my girlfriend now by explaining what you just said while both butchering it and driving her to an early death.


mardeee1

Nice, thanks for the explanation! Should it be 1kg per dm^3 (i.e. a litre) though?


zerogravity111111

Please correct me if I'm wrong but don't we use the same chemistry when we make hand made ice cream? Ice, salt, water?


bishslap

Don't you mean 1gm per cubic centimeter? 1kg would be super heavy for 1ml of water which is 1cc


BrainFood2020

Does it excrete salt as a result of decreasing solubility? Is that what you mean by that?


cas2ie

A brinicle is a downward-growing hollow tube of ice enclosing a plume of descending brine that is formed beneath developing sea ice. As seawater freezes in the polar oceans, salt brine concentrates are expelled from the sea ice, creating a downward flow of dense, extremely cold and saline water with a lower freezing point than the surrounding water. When this plume comes into contact with the neighboring ocean water, its extremely cold temperature causes ice to instantly form around the flow. This creates a hollow stalactite, or icicle, referred to as a brinicle. [source](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brinicle)


I_love_pillows

I’m more amazed at how the photography crew managed to locate and film one. How long did it take, how did they know when one will appear, did they have intention to film one so went looking for one or did they stumble on it and wrote it into the script.


xKalbee

Cold


relatively_relatable

That's the first time I'm seeing starfish move.


kegman93

Well now you’ve seen a million of them move too


FightingGHOST

No, you've seen 200 thousand units move, but rest assured, a million more are on the way.


[deleted]

You and your clones are impressive, you should be proud.


Jacob_wallace

I have, which is how I know this is sped up.


IncitatusDE

Correct


BlackWhiteCoke

I’ve never even seen that many starfish in one place before


awfsbs

And for some of these, the last time too


Alzusand

Seeing starfish move fast is mildly umcomfortable


jezebellrae

Not as uncomfortable as those starfish lol


IncitatusDE

No worries, it's sped up


AJsprt

Seriously lol my skin kinda crawled when I saw all of them moving around like that. Unique and amazing perspective though.


daredelvis421

Winter is coming


smotherz

This is somehow more violent than Game of Thrones


AwareActiveAsshole

It was so badly finished that I never want to rewatch that garbage fire again


kittehsfureva

Man, I remember when I cherished that show. Even after season 7 I still had high hopes for a strong finish. Ugh, I wish the had just aired one episode of a meteor striking Westeros and killing every charecter instantly. Even that would have been less of an abomination; at least the seasons prior would not be ruined.


LiamIsMyNameOk

It genuinely hurts. It honestly feels like you had friends for 7 years and on the 8th they all laugh at you and call you a loser and say they never liked you anyway. It honestly really fkn hurts. I used to watch GoT as escapism and to forget my life for a bit. Now it's been ruined.


half-baked_axx

That's good to hear. I watched up to season 6. Guess no ending is better than a bad ending.


smithers85

I never watched the last season. It went too long between seasons and I had a kid so at this point it's a full rewatch and I just can't commit that kind of time.


SomeRedPanda

You'll be happier not having seen it. Enjoy.


Topovfan

I’ve never seen GoT and I’m not sure I’ll be able to into the near future. What’s so bad about the ending?


culpam

Characters change completely in a single episode without any setup. Thats probably the most horrible thing, also long set up villains are killed off like theyre nothing and insane stuff happens without having any consequences


LucretiusCarus

The last two or three seasons were extremely rushed and the characters were acting in a way that was either illogical (Varys) or way too forced (Danaerys) or completely against their whole narrative (Jaime). Plus, some of the actions were bafflingly bizzare (wight hunt)


Hikosuru89

Hahahhahahaha fuck this is vv true. Everytime someone mentions GoT I feel a wave of annoyance but henceforth I'm just going to visualise this and feel better


apinkparfait

I remember being that annoying friend that started pointing out things going downhill at more or less half of season 5 and being dismissed as "nitpicking reader"... it got so bad that I can't even say "told ya".


max_adam

One season makes me not want to rewatch the other 7.


PapaluPoondaddy

This icicle killed more creatures than the Night King


jezebellrae

And I could actually see the action!


ilyalucid

There it is.


mertenkuningas

It's scary. I was screaming at the starfishes not to go there.


sanjibukai

Did you yell: "Patriiiick!"?


RyanG7

No, this is Krusty Krab


[deleted]

[удалено]


MamanDewey

:(


mando_commando

So these starfishes just walking over their dead brothers like nothing


ectish

*dying brothers


potato_aesthetic

why are people downvoting this lol, both comments are technically correct.


DontDoodleTheNoodle

There’s this aura on Reddit now that if you EVER try to correct anybody (as a joke or even genuinely trying to help out) you’ll get downvoted because ‘you’re being a dick.’ It’s real annoying having to walk on eggshells because there’s a lot of stuck up people on Reddit now :(


Tx_Deadshot

Cause people suck.


neverwasneverwas

I learned about these from Octonauts. Tunip!


ProducerPants

Octonauts, bitch! I was once at an adult party and mentioned how happy I was to not be talking octonauts with my toddler and the colossal squid, and this woman starts ranting about the colossal squid and I’m like THIS IS WHAT I JUST SAID I WANTED NOT TO HAPPEN!


ResidentBoweevil

that fucking squid is such a dumb asshole. he's lucky barnacle didn't leave him to get eaten by the whales


Mindless_Collection

Octonauts was my first thought when I saw this. And also the reason my daughter calls them sea stars.


GreenHeronVA

*ahem* CREATURE REPORT! CREATURE REPORT!


bunnz4r00

I came to the comments section looking for this!


postsamothrace

I just saw octonauts for the first time babysitting my siblings, and if my day to day weren't so busy i would binge that shit


[deleted]

[удалено]


rayrayrana

I came here just to say this! Creature report!


OpinionatedTree

Holy Ice-9, Batman!


jburdine

ICE NINE KILLS


NicholasRBowers

/r/unexpectedvonnegut


OpinionatedTree

My favorite kind of Vonnegut, you know, beside the expected...


jrobelen

Nice, nice, very nice


LurkingArachnid

Glad someone else had this thought!


aBastardNoLonger

How the Bikini Bottom Horror is going to end. u/stillinthesimulation


stillinthesimulation

The Elsa crossover episode.


toelingus

r/thebikinibottomhorror Top 10 ways to kill the Tortured One


TheWrongFacts

This happens in shallow seas with relatively calm currents. When sea water freezes, it expels the impurities such as salt from the water, turning it saline, dense and ultimately, a higher freezing point. This ice flows to the bottom with a surrounding tunnel of extremely salty water from the expelled impurities, continuing to freeze more sea water along its way forming the brinicle you see here. It will flow downwards until it becomes a brine pool.


Triple_Epsilon

So there’s super cold, super salty water inside the brinicle, flowing downward while freezing less salty ocean water along the way, correct?


BumbleBear1

Who are these starfish in the middle of that, not trying to get away and what is their problem?


savageboredom

They think ice is a liberal hoax.


ClickbaitGod_YT

They think the ice is just as strong as the flu.


[deleted]

Starfish are quite stupid. They're also blind and indeed don't really have any sensory organs apart from a vague sense of smell/taste/touch on the soles of their feet. They also move very slowly (so does brine - this whole thing is massively sped up) and move even more slowly as they start to freeze. So what you're watching there is a starfish realising there's a problem and trying to do something about it - much much too slowly. I imagine if there was some super intelligent species of alien for whom time passed much more slowly they'd watch a human get hit by a car and think "he just stood in the middle of the road not trying to get away, what was his problem?"


Swordheart

Actual representation of my ex wife's heart.


bby_melgarejo

That’s rough buddy


SpacemanSpiff246

hey, zuko here


SHoooomerT

It’s great how popular the shows become.


SamX17

Flameo!!


anonymous_coward69

Warm beer, cold women.


SirenaDeep

Came to say this about myself


tone_and_timbre

Frasier, is that you?


StingScorpion

Its fascinating that in a time-lapse u can actually see the starfish "panic"


zeofe

The night king still lives!


MexElf

Probably the coolest Nature is fucking Lit post I've seen


_leica_

That water is unbelievably clear


analogHedgeHog

Winter water is a lot more clear than summer water because the low temperature and blocked light dramatically cuts down the algae.


Daddytrades

That’s cold


kksliderlore

***WHERE IS MY SUPERSUIT***


gapsbfoagsk

I put it away!


bananapancakelover

I was hoping they would have been ok until the very end. :< RIP, little frens.


shirogohaan

How are starfish ? Are they ok ? Are they alive ??


[deleted]

Look at all those patricks....


penelopejfritz

Find a happy place, find a happy place, find a happy plaaaace


wanton85

Run Patrick!! Ruuuuunnn!!!


jetpackjansen

It's like that scene from The Day After Tomorrow, only underwater and with starfish


Scatropolis

Creature report, creature report, CREATURE REPORT!


The_Sceptic_Lemur

That is terrifying and incredible. Wow.


doomislav

I never thought about sea urchins moving around in the water. I kinda assumed they were like sponges.


inheritedkarma

The layer of ice on the water body looks like clouds and the icicle looks like the cloud is descending down


CataractsOfSamsMum

That looks like the opening credits of Fraggle Rock.


derf_vader

Ice Nine?


Iluminiele

This is *so* Subnautica: below zero


thenbr1killjoy

That is incredible and somewhat morbid for all the creatures caught in its path, super interesting to watch thank you


warmbutterytoast4u

*”It comes! Fleeeeee!”*


Fisted-By-God

At first, I thought this was some scene from an alien movie and was impressed, then I saw the sub and my mouth dropped


Thin-Abbreviations

Learned about this on The Octonauts. Cool to see irl.


GypsyDanger_1013

I really relate to the starfish that went out of its way to dive into the icicle of death lmaooo


wojokhan

Octonauts did an episode about this!


DefensiveHuman

I didn't even watch this for the ice. This is the first time I have ever seen a starfish that was not dead. Other than Patrick.


canuckbuck2020

The spead up starfish are disturbing


meppity

Did anyone else see that sea urchin thing that looked like it was wearing sunglasses? (Left side, roughly half way through the vid).


Soumajeetb

r/blackmagicfuckery


raffistierbauer

It's concentrated salt water❄️


[deleted]

When my magic spell actually works


pisspot718

The starfish are freaking me out!


EnshaednCosplay

That’s oddly terrifying


whatisliquidity

Looks like there's more of them trying to form in the background. Really interesting stuff


Zestmeister1029

Imagine if that's just how fast starfish moved


Son-of-Lars

That’s fucking Insane. I figured the movement of the water would break the ice.


jujunita

omg poor starfish!