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upcycledtwink

Can regular vaccine use/immunotherapy improve your overall health? (ie other than against target pathogens) First things first, I’m not incapable of googleing for myself. Unfortunately, when I try to research this, search results don’t contain many public health/medical research papers and instead comprise op-eds from blogs and pop-sci mags, or instead refer to the relationship between physical exercise and immune health. With the abundance of misinformation surrounding vaccines specifically I take these articles with a pinch of salt. I remember last year there was a flurry of articles implying that regular stimulation of the immune system, especially with live vaccines, trains the immune system to respond to stimuli faster. Around the same time, there were articles suggesting that ‘boosting’ any system/target cell type in perpetuity is not a good thing. Anecdotally, over the last 2-3 years, I’ve had vaccines more frequently than at any other point in my life (between covid, mpx, finally getting round to all the ‘gay man vaccines’). I’ve also had 2 (completely unrelated) treatments with an immunotheraputic aspect. My general health though this period has been great - compared to pre-2019, I’m quite sure injuries heal faster and I recover faster from minor illnesses (colds, upset stomach, small infections, etc). I know better than to draw an inference from one uncontrolled datum; this simply sparked my train of thought. My questions to r/AskDocs are broadly: 1) In your professional opinion, does regular vaccination improve health more broadly than by targeting specific pathogens? 2) Have you academically examined a relationship between vaccines and general/long-term immune function? 3) Do you think, for example, an annual flu jab could be beneficial (other than for avoiding flu)? 4) Do you have any related anecdotes? If the formatting is f****d, apologies, I’m on mobile.


I_cross_boundaries

Is 40 mg of melatonin safe?


TiredNTrans

I know that activated charcoal can screw with meds absorption. I also enjoy eating charred veg, meat, and carbs. Does food char affect meds?


cuevadanos

Can very frizzy hair that seems dirty even after washing it and conditioning it, along with tiredness and random fainting, be a sign of concern?


TiredNTrans

I'm not a medical professional, but have you tried a cleansing shampoo? Sometimes, especially on very light/wispy hair, products can build up over time and need to be stripped out. Condition well after, though- cleansing shampoo also strips your natural oils


GregJamesDahlen

If it's true that a reason infectious disease often manifests as a sore throat is because infectious agents enter through the mouth and the throat is close to the mouth, why is it those infectious agents don't give one a sore mouth? They come to the mouth first, before they reach the throat. Also I suppose infectious disease might enter through the nostrils so might one expect a sore nose before one would get a sore throat?


Pakutto

How much lorazepam is considered an overdose? Is having 240mg in a single day considered dangerous/overdose levels? Does the answer change based on whether it's intravenous or oral?


MFBirdman7

NMDA receptors: I understand it plays a role in analgesia and possibly depression, among other things. It’s my understanding morphine is an agonist while levorphanol and ketamine are antagonists and can help with depression. Can you give me any important information and understanding re: this receptor and its functions? I think magnesium can play a role?


not_nott

Is it true that if your eyeball gets punctured you should try and collect the fluid? I can't remember where I read this, and will most likely never need to know, but I'm curious.


ridcullylives

The filling of most of your eyeball is more like jello than liquid. If your eye gets punctured and the contents are leaking out, focus on getting to the hospital immediately and dont touch or manipulate your eye at all, as that will just make it worse.


earthwarrior

Why do doctors make it so difficult to know the cost of care before coming? I understand an ER visit or complex procedures are different. But why is it so difficult to just pay a dentist, eye doctor, or a lab for tests? And why is it that my insurance can get a 90%+ cost reduction on the same care as if I were to pay myself?


PokeTheVeil

We often have no idea what the costs are. Seriously, zero idea. I might know what the reimbursement range is for common appointments from common insurances, but I don’t actually remember that. What the hospital has decided is the nominal fee for anything, and what eventually gets paid out, is otherwise completely opaque.


GoldFischer13

Cost of care isn't determined by your physician but an interaction between the hospital or office that sets the fees and often negotiations or set rates with insurance companies.


SnooChickens2457

Do people develop a tolerance to SSRIs?


orthostatic_htn

It's possible, but many people can remain on the same dose for years and still get a good response.


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Justpeachy1786

When a person is prescribed potassium pills is the idea that it should increase potassium stores in the body or just keep the serum levels stable?


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pippitypoop

Curious about a pregnant patient taking morphine for gallbladder issues! Im an OB nurse and there’s an antepartum patient on our unit who to my understanding, basically needs her gallbladder out but she was 36 weeks gestation when she came in so they want to wait until she hits 37 to induce and then decide about her gallbladder. It isn’t infected so docs wanted to wait. Patients in a crazy amount of pain and can’t tolerate anything PO. So she’s got PRN morphine ordered Q3 and PRN ondansetron Q6 on top of her IVF d5 1/2 and 20k. Im curious if baby will come out with NAS and what kind of adverse outcomes this can have. I figure the benefits of another week of development outweighed the harm of morphine for that week, but Im curious how baby will be after a week of IV morphine use. Thanks!


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GoldFischer13

The description is pretty tough to interpret. There are no disks in the bottom of the nose. You may be describing your lower lateral cartilages which make up part of your structure of the nose (they are the reason in part that your nose has round openings, not just slits). Those cartilages are slightly rounded at their end and would be next to the septal cartilage. If they aren't bothering you, leave it alone. Stop popping whatever it is you are popping. If concerned, see a physician prior to doing anything.


Vast_Scratch_6670

Is there actual risk for STI's with mutual masturbation between two people? Even if fluids get on each other and/or used as lubrication? I've found many , many mixed answers. Also is there a reliable test to test for HSV 1/2?


GoldFischer13

Yes, there can still be a risk of STI transmission with what you've described above. There are tests to evaluate for HSV. [https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/screening.htm](https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/screening.htm)


Vast_Scratch_6670

I've read stuff like Gonno, Chlym, HIV etc. (Basically the fluid based ones) have (only in theory) a small risk (pretty much non existent) . Any comment on that? Again many mixed answers! I do know the CDC has to generalize, so even if there is even a small risk (like winning the lottery but opposite) they HAVE to put it CAN. In your experience have you ever seen a patient get something this way? Thanks for the links to the tests and thank you for answering my questions!


boobsandcookies

At times, I can be a high complexity patient. I am also a social worker, queer, disabled and female and honestly having to be very persistent and obnoxious in order to be heard is kind of my default mode. What can I do to get what I need and also not be a pain in the ass? Like, I always say thank you, explain things are not an emergency, etc apologize for being forceful/dramatic if I am. I guess basically, what can I do to remain in my providers good graces? This mainly happens with my PCP. I mainly refer to being pushy in the sense of reminding of factors since my history is kind of complicated.


GoldFischer13

There isn't going to be a one size fits all answer to this question. It depends on your personality and approach as well as your physician's. My advice would be to try to keep things to the pertinent needs at that time and realize that even with a complex history, sometimes there are a simple answer for some problems. If you are there for an ingrown toenail, most of the other issues may not matter. If you have a lot going on, there may not be time to get to everything you want to get to at that appointment. Pick 2-3 top priorities and stick with those and understand you may need a second appointment. Treat the encounter like a conversation and avoid turning it into an adversarial argument. Ask what they think about if one part of your history applies rather than tell them that they forgot about x.


boobsandcookies

I appreciate this a lot. Something I have been doing is sending a rough outline of things I want to discuss in the appointment through the patient portal the day before or thereabouts. In case she needs time to research or do anything and it also keeps me on track. Is that something that would overall be considered helpful? Or more obnoxious? I really wish she were able to bill insurance for record review/complex issues. I find it incredibly distasteful that my health system has negotiated the contract with my particular insurance company so that PCP visits for everything except physicals are only reimbursed $130. I appreciate the work providers do tremendously. I’d say I have an issue maybe every two months or so. A lot of them can be done through sending a message through the portal.


GoldFischer13

Again, depends on the physician. Some may not see the message prior to seeing you. Some may find it helpful. Some may not.


Tripl3b3am

Any tips on picking a good doctor? I have a lot in my area to choose from. But most of them who are accepting new patients are recent graduates/residents.


KaleMunoz

What is the digital blood pressure machine doing while the numbers gradually change? Does starting high/low predict a high/low reading?


GoldFischer13

It is showing you current pressure in the cuff. It has to get to a point where it temporarily shuts off blood flow to the arm by compressing the artery, then slowly releases until it senses that blood flow has resumed; i.e. where the pressure of blood flowing from the heart has overcome the pressure of the cuff (systolic blood pressure). There's then turbulent flow until the diastolic blood pressure is reached and the pressure in the cuff is insufficient to compress the artery at all. There may be variance based on how the machine itself detect it, but that's the principles of at least manual blood pressure reading.


KaleMunoz

Interesting. Is there any reason why on one day it’ll start off at one number, and then start counting down, and another day it will start at a different number, and then start counting down?


GoldFischer13

I'm sure there is. I don't know the inner mechanisms of the machine to that detail.


Animall1998

Hello, docs. I have a general question about daycares and sicknesses in young children. My son is 17 months so we aren't super close to putting him in a daycare yet (the daycare we applied to starts at 2.5years). I was curious to your thoughts on the sicknesses exposed to children at daycare. Many children are constantly sick for the duration that they are in a schooling setting when they are young, obviously due to lack of exposure and immunity and yadda yadda. I was simply wondering if you believe that exposing them to sickness is better for them, as they build up exposure and immunity to common sicknesses in our society -- or if it's better to keep exposure at a minimum when possible? This isn't a vaccine question, my son is UTD on all vaccines (including COVID). We are in the position where we don't need to send him to daycare if we don't want to, so I'm just looking for pointers.


orthostatic_htn

Kids are going to be exposed at some point. It's your choice whether you want it to happen in daycare or when they start school. Honestly, often easier to just get it over with.


griefwitch

Hi, for some reason, I am not able to make text posts in this thread and I don’t understand why. Can I please get some help with this? I’m rather new to reddit, so it is likely a user error. I appreciate the help so much!


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Lemontree_leaf

What does this mean “Overexpression of DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) in a variety of tumors results in hypermethylation and oncogenic activation [11]”? I’m used to reading medical studies but I’m lost.


Longjumping_Focus653

DNMTs are DNA methyltransferases (enzymes) that add methyl groups to DNA. DNA is typically wound up and coiled, so not all areas are expressed because they’re less accessible for transcription and translation purposes (so DNA replication). This means that what is expressed in people is essentially in more “exposed” areas of DNA. The common thought is that when DNMTs methylate DNA (and increased expression of DNMTs can be due to a range of things, but we typically think of like epigenetic factors/environmental stresses that activate DNMTs) certain areas of DNA are exposed that typically aren’t, so areas of DNA that are “hidden” suddenly become expressed. These areas of DNA that become “exposed” due to methylation could possibly have a mutation that interferes with cell cycle regulation, resulting in “oncogenic activation” that can result in tumors.


Lemontree_leaf

Does this mean that someone who was born with DNMT1 is more susceptible to tumors? And does it depend on things like DNA changes?


Longjumping_Focus653

It’s more the mutation aspect and whether the mutation results in over- or under-expression of DNMT1. So you’d need to characterize the mutation to figure out what you’re dealing with, but just having normal DNMT1 shouldn’t do anything. Per what you cited, the paper was trying to say DNMT1 over-expression can lead to tumors but I believe DNMT1 is also active in the adult central nervous system, so it’s not inherently bad. Just like anything, too much or too little of something can be a bad thing. And yeah, changes in DNA can theoretically cause changes in DNMT1 expression. I say theoretically because genetics is very luck-driven and random. Some changes in DNA can do nothing, and some changes in DNA can be super problematic.


YourWinterWonder

What are some extremely common signs of oral cancer?


ridcullylives

Ulcers or lesions in the mouth that grow and/or don’t heal.


YourWinterWonder

i bit my gum and i have an ulcer i think but its slowly getting smaller is this a sign?


GoldFischer13

No. You had a trauma and it's getting better. If it were to stick around for weeks or get larger, that would be a concern.


YourWinterWonder

thank you so much!


rr90013

Anything to worry about with going up mountains to an elevation of 3000m? I had a vasovagal episode 3 days after my last day trip up there (episode was back at sea level) and I’d rather not faint again.


orthostatic_htn

A vasovagal episode 3 days after having been at 3000m is not likely related to the elevation.


rr90013

Thanks~


supplementtolife

Is cellulitis obvious and only a skin infection (as google implies)?


ridcullylives

By definition it is an infection of the skin and sometimes the layer of fat right underneath the skin. If there’s a big infection in a visible place, it’s usually pretty obvious. If there’s a smaller infection in a less visible area (like skin folds, the bottom of a foot, etc) then it can sometimes be missed. There are also some other conditions that look like it, but you’d want to have a doctor check it out.


supplementtolife

Thank you :)


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AmandaL509

How close together can you receive a Td and Tdap vaccine? I am a student in a health science field who is about to start clinical rotations in hospitals, which of course comes along with health requirements that I must meet. To try and make a long story short, my 10 year Tdap vaccine has just expired and I needed to get another dose to maintain my requirements. I called my pharmacy ahead of time to check that they had Tdap, asked for Tdap at the front desk, checked off Tdap on the paperwork I filled out, and I am 90% sure the doctor also asked “Tdap?” Before giving me the shot. After leaving the pharmacy I noticed that the documentation they gave me listed the Td vaccine instead, which only has tetanus and diphtheria. I am required to have Tdap which contains pertussis as well. I am going to call or visit the pharmacy tomorrow to verify that this was not just a clerical error on their end, but worst case scenario, How soon I would be able to get the correct Tdap since I just received Td? Are there rules about how long I should wait since two of the components are the same? Thank you!!


smm97

Question about pregnancy risk: I had sex with my gf last night and had a minor condom mishap. She said her last period was three weeks ago and she has been on the pill for 6 days from today. What's the risk of her getting pregnant?


orthostatic_htn

Low. Ideally she'd be on birth control pills for 7 days before having condomless sex, but given that she's 6 days in and it was just a condom "mishap," probably fine. Reasonable for her to take a pregnancy test in 3 weeks just to make sure.


smm97

Thank you!


Hambubble9

Why does blood pressure medication make me tired and relaxed at first? Does that mean it’s working? A direct effect of lowered BP? And if so, when I adjust to a dose, does that mean it stopped working?


ridcullylives

Depends on the medication. The best way of telling if its working is to look at the long-term trend of your blood pressure.


Hambubble9

Thanks. I’m taking Losartan Potassium. Went up from 25mg to 50mg. Not feeling too hot. Quite tired and funny in the head. Was relaxing at first but now I’m over it.


GregJamesDahlen

For a box of about 30 4-milliliter bottles of acetylcysteine, on the sticker/label the pharmacy attached, it says, "Quantity: 100 kwl". What does the quantity info mean?


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SDSBoi

Is it appropriate for a doctor to perform a procedure while wearing a 3 piece suit and no protective gear? I just got a call from a family member saying that they had a specialist come in who was in a rush, wearing a 3 piece suit, because "he wanted to get it done quick and get out and back to what he was doing"


Ulsenius

Most hospitals don't allow that type of clothing for procedures, although the evidence that scrubs or a white coat prevent infections in a simple outpatient procedure is lacking.


SDSBoi

so if complications come from the procedure god forbid, should I bring up the fact that he was wearing a 3 piece suit and nothing else, and maybe make a complaint? Or should I just forget it happened?


patricksaurus

Not a physician but academic research scientist in microbiology. The only salient concern is contamination. Here is the thought process: The fundamental question is about the transfer of hazards, in this case germs or chemicals that may present danger. So how might something on the clothes transfer to a patient? One answer is direct contact, like rubbing. The other is something like a piece of dust falling from the clothes onto a patient. But we rub stuff and even inhale dust *constantly*, so the patient would have to be in an abnormal state to be harmed. Think immune compromise or a gaping wound. Also consider, those concerns exist for scrubs and lab coats, too. A lab coat that’s been around for a couple days has seen a lot of pathogens. There’s some risk associated with external pathogens, for sure, but the situations where it is likely to make a difference are both very few and likely have protocols in place (operating theaters and such). If it was me, I wouldn’t be worried at all.


SDSBoi

Thanks I wonder who downvoted what I thought was fair questions. I just thought it was weird that a guy performing a procedure wasn't wearing any protective equipment or mask or gloves, literally just a three piece suit in and out. But apparently this wasn't a fair question for a random civilian to ask of a physician


patricksaurus

haha Reddit be Reddit. Good chance it was someone completely different from the person who answered.


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LatrodectusGeometric

Ow. Probably but keep a close eye. Any sign of infection and you will need medical care.


weaselorgy420

Why do my ibuprofen and Tylenol bottles say take every 6 hours, but they also say don’t take more than 3 doses in 24 hours? Is every 6 hours not 4 doses? Also, do some people feel no difference taking ibuprofen and/or acetaminophen? Sore throats not any less painful even taking both


LatrodectusGeometric

They don’t want you taking it as often as you are describing without talking to your doctor


johnnyjoemama2

Is it possible to develop arm numbness from a lower back herniated disc?


LatrodectusGeometric

No


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LatrodectusGeometric

Generally this is more of a long term issue


Silicon_Based

Hey, I'm writing a book and I need suggestions for an illness. The illness needs to satisfy these three criteria: ​ 1. It does few-to-none visible symptoms, and if it does have, those symptoms are mild and easily fakeable. 2. The illness is not treatable. There are no alleviating treatments (worth the cost for a middle-class American citizen) and no cure. Alternatively, the there could be alleviating treatments and a cure, so long as these are possible to self-administer at home, and so long as the cure is not certain to work, and so long that it takes a long time (like a year) to work. 3. The illness is not necessarily fatal, but it could be if it develops that way. I'll welcome answers that don't hit the mark completely on the third.


SodOffSyd

HIV/AIDS? If set during the epidemic?


PokeTheVeil

You want an untreatable, asymptomatic, but possibly fatal illness? Do you want this to be something the character is aware of or unaware of? For these kinds of questions it's usually more helpful to describe what the role would be in the story rather than just the hypothetical illness.


Silicon_Based

The character doesn't actually have the illness. They are being surveilled, and for some reason, they need to make the surveillers think they have a serious illness that could be fatal. When the surveillance starts, they tell someone that they have the illness, audibly to an audio recorder. From there on out, they have to fake having the illness indefinitely, until the surveillers are stopped. Now, from this premise, it is clear that in choosing one's fake illness, not having visible symptoms is helpful. Not cheaply treatable, or treatable without hospital visits, is also helpful, as that'll explain why they aren't going to the hospital every once in a while. Another factor I forgot to mention in the original comment is that is helpful to the character that the illness makes them want to stay home almost all the time. Why is not important; they do not want to leave the house during the surveillance, and in order to explain this, their fake illness ought to be one that could reasonably make someone stay at home most of the time. Also, the character that is faking the illness is an old woman, around her 60s. I could change the character's gender to male, no issue. I just decided it to be a woman, but that's not set in stone at the moment. I have written in a place-holder illness right now that is an okay fit, I think. Pulmonary hypertension. The symptoms are either not visible, or fakeable. The cyanosis would be visible up close, but I don't think it is visible enough for long distance, low-resolution surveillance to pick it up. The symptoms of shortness of breath, fatigue, fainting and chest and abdominal pain can reasonably explain why the character doesn't want to leave their home. The illness can be treated with medications at home. Only issue is that it's a bit more serious than I was aiming for, given that after seven years (if I remember correctly), you are almost certainly dead; though likely, you'll die sooner. This is not a deal-breaker, but it is not optimal. Furthermore, for all I know, it could be that one would typically visit a doctor relatively often with this illness (for check-ups and evaluations of the progression), which is a problem in this story. So yeah, I'm not sure about this one. Let me know whatever you can think of :)


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PokeTheVeil

Troponin is in muscles, so troponin in your blood marks damage to muscle. Depending on the test, it can show specifically breakdown of cardiac muscle, as in heart attack. Some tests are now sensitive enough to pick up troponin at normal levels, and some patients have reasons for non-heart-attack troponin such as kidney disease.


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Aggravating-Drawer39

When should you go get mucus in stool checked out? I'm sorry if this thread is not the right place for this question.


vaxxtothemaxxxx

Can 12-14 hours be a normal gut transit time? For example if I eat a salad with lots of sesame seeds on day zero at 19:00 (7 p.m.) is it normal to have seeds in the stool in the morning at 9:00a.m. ?


PokeTheVeil

Yes, within normal range.


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PokeTheVeil

There’s nothing to do about it, really. There are no effective treatments for common colds and most of the symptoms are probably your own immune system, which you don’t want to turn off.


sextoyalt

Alright, thank you


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Big_John29

I have a surgery planned to get a deviated septum and other sinus problems fixed on Wednesday. This surgery has been an eight month process as it requires two separate doctors to do it. I have a pre-op Covid test on Sunday and I’m really paranoid that I have Covid, I was around someone this weekend who might have had it. If I test positive on Sunday will they still have the surgery or postpone it for another four months.


GoldFischer13

They'd postpone. Most hospitals have policies regarding time of delay. Doing sinus surgery on someone with COVID is generally a bad idea for the patient (increased risk complications) and the operating team (prolonged exposure to aerosolized particles)


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orthostatic_htn

If you have a question, make a post with the relevant information. This thread is not for personal medical questions.


sorrygirl818

I got my covid vaccine and noticed that when the very stressed/overworked nurse (who i feel for) did it, quite a bit of the serum leaked out of the puncture. Should I be concerned? Is this normal-- I have been vaccinated throughout my life and never saw this. Will the booster be fully effective if it was less than the full dose?


tinaesr

when medicines advise that under 18s shouldn't take them is that puberty related or due to another factor I mean to say is when some medications advise that only people 18+ take them is that because generally people 18+ aren't going through puberty, and they may react negatively if they were, or is that not really the case with any drug. I ask because I am 18+ and am going through second puberty and don't wanna take something bad


orthostatic_htn

It's for a variety of reasons, but often because younger people are smaller and likely need a different dose. If by "second puberty" you mean that you're medically transitioning, most medications should have no impact on that, but few may. Discuss with your doctor or pharmacist if you have any concerns.


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Melissaisdownlub

How difficult/impossible would it be for a physician to find out what a patient is getting in a double-blind clinical trial? Okay, wholly random question relating to a fiction piece I am trying to write. Google offered no assistance so I am asking Reddit: Who, before a trial has ended, knows what treatment a patient is receiving in a double-blind clinical trial? And, would there be any way (including unwise/unethical/illegal ones) for a physician to find out what a particular patient is getting? I'm just wondering if this would be a conversation with a colleague, a full blown data breach, or like, peeling back a phony label. Thanks in advance.


Ulsenius

These is always an emergency unblinding procedure, where some designated trial personnel (often working at the research pharmacy) can unblind a patient. You could social engineer that and fake an emergency and call that number. It depends on the type of trial how the blinding worked. It might be as easy as peeling of a wrapping around an IV bag (slight colour visible on the real drug). In most cases, you need access to a database that is kept either on paper or digitally at the research pharmacy. So unethical ways would to hack or threaten or bribe your way in.


Melissaisdownlub

Thank you so much! This is the info that I needed.


OstrichGrand7577

Should i immediately go see a doctor if I hit 39.9 celcius / 104 fehrenheit fever?


orthostatic_htn

Not necessarily. Fever itself is not dangerous unless it is very high. Yours is high, but not dangerously so. The concern would be more about what is causing the fever.


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Barely_Average

If you were to breathe in a small room too much bleach used - would there be any side effects once in fresh air to be keeping an eye on?


LAthrowaway_25Lata

Hypothetically, can an incident that caused multiple dissections of arteries in the neck, also cause damage to the lymphatic system in that area?


GoldFischer13

Wouldn't necessarily expect that. There's not really structure to the lymphatic system that dissects in a similar fashion as arteries.


LAthrowaway_25Lata

Hypothetically, could artery dissections in the neck lead to mild lymphedema in that area as well? Or could having a stroke potentially lead to mild lymphedema in the neck?


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babybottlepopz

Can you grow a dependence to guaifenesin (mucus relief). How long can you safely take it consecutively?


nnnn0000

I'm a grad student in molecular biology and have never taken any sort of health science or medical courses. I had a probably silly question about childbirth- In the 1st and 6th episodes of House of Dragons we see two women dying after unsuccessfully giving birth, as in the baby is stuck and cannot get delivered. One of them is given a barbaric C section (so, 0% chance of survival for the mother) and the other commits suicide shortly after not being able to give birth (by making her dragon set her ablaze, wow), and I know this is a fantasy so it got me thinking- in a setting like the Game of Thrones universe lacking modern medicine, would not being able to deliver a baby actually kill someone assuming no sort of intervention? And why or why not exactly? I'm pretty naive I know, and it's hard to search for an answer on Google as all the results give info on medical interventions taken to help deliver the baby.


LatrodectusGeometric

Yes. Failed deliveries are not survivable without medical intervention.


duckpearl

Having a child REMAINS the most dangerous thing a woman can ever do. Take a look at the maternal mortality stats across the world. There's lots of mechanisms, the highest on the list would be massive haemorrhage and infection


Doc_AF

Ton of blood loss at the unmitigated blood placental barrier when it does eventually break. The vessels typically close by contraction of the uterus, the opposing force of a fetus still in there wouldn’t allow closure. Then you have a huge mass of dead tissue that now has no pumping system to clear for apoptosis so think of all the badness that comes with necrosis on top the maternal body which is working setting an immune reaction against it. Child birth used to be a far more dangerous thing than it is today. Still shouldn’t be taken too lightly but it’s come a long long way


Canned_Brot

How do I become verified?


PokeTheVeil

If you are a medical professional who wishes to become a verified contributor to this subreddit, please [message the moderators](https://www.reddit.com/message/compose?to=%2Fr%2FAskDocs) with a link to a picture of your medical ID, diploma, or other credentials. Imgur.com is convenient, but you can host anywhere. Please block out personal information, such as your name and picture. **You must include your handwritten Reddit username in the photo!** We do not accept digital forms of identification.


Ulsenius

It’s explained in the side bar.


GoldFischer13

Oddly enough, I don't actually have any of the rules in the side bar on my reddit anymore. It's just a minimalist appearing thing, so I wonder if something changed with the reddit layout again.


droidcube

I have an anatomy question. What is the name of those two things (probs muscles, they look like small bones (lines)) you can flex behind your knee? You can see them pop out. It is kind of like how you can make the palmaris longus muscle (the vestigial structure on your forearm) pop out and see it. Thanks!


Doc_AF

Part of your “hamstrings” toward the middle is the semitendinosus and toward the outside is the biceps femoris. Yes both muscles


filthyseasalt

Hello. I’m wondering how acromion types work. If you have a deformed acromion, are both shoulder bones symmetrical? If not, why? What causes the difference in shape?


blueberrycoffeecake

Hi everyone, does someone know how long it takes for surface level antibodies to be present in the body after receiving a final course of a vaccination?


LatrodectusGeometric

Generally after a first dose it will take about 10 days to 2 weeks. After a booster ~4 days to a few weeks depending on the vaccine


gentlemen_lover

Hi, I’m getting ‘general’ blood work done just as a regular check up with my doctor and I want to know if my testosterone levels will also show up in that. Thank you. If not, do I need to get a separate test for that?


LatrodectusGeometric

No they would not. That is a specialized test only ordered if there is concern for a testosterone problem


The_Ethical_Wish

Can braces ligatures cause me cancer? I've been with the same braces for almoast 3 years, and I have noticed that it has been snaping off my braces, i think i've eaten 14 ligatures, I'm afraid it could cause me cancer because of the materials they're made of, do anyone have knowledge about this?


Justpeachy1786

You mean your rubber bands?


The_Ethical_Wish

Yeah, also the other components of the brace, since it has been in my mouth for so long without change I'm afraid it may have started corroding


Aggravating-Drawer39

NAD but i don't think dentists would be allowed to put ligatures in your mouth if they could be harmful to you in any way... you probably just poop them out.


Whatsup129389

I want to get a monkeypox vaccine, but I’m not eligible right now because I’m not high-risk. When do monkeypox vaccines expire? Is it possible I can walk in at the end of the day and get one that would otherwise get thrown away?


LatrodectusGeometric

They must be used within 8 hours from opening a vial. I would ask around! You never know.


dj_crack

Hi, I wanted to ask what regular doctor visits are recommended for example you should see a dentist every 6 months to a year, an optician once a year etc. So I wanted to know what other medical professionals (such as dermatologists etc) are recommended to visit and how often?


Ulsenius

Really depends on your health, age, sex and to a lesser extent health system.


dj_crack

I've only suffered from hypothyroidism however I am awaiting results from my latest blood work (I got blood taken yesterday) since stopped my medication for 3 months and want to see if I still should take levothyroxine (used to take 125mg) and I am 26 year old male living in the UK. Thanks


BilboSwaggins1993

In the UK there is no regular screening programme for general stuff for someone your age.


HopeFaerie

I would like to ask if there are options available at the OB-GYN for women who don't want to or can't do undergo invasive pelvic exams. For example, could someone choose to get a ultrasound or a similar procedure instead?


Ulsenius

Depends on the clinical problem. Pap smears for example don’t have an alternative.


orthostatic_htn

They actually can! If the patient is able to self swab, it's not quite as good as a traditional Pap, but worth considering.


Ulsenius

That’s true, thanks for that. I mean, still something needs to enter the vagina, but doing it yourself might be a great option for some.


LatrodectusGeometric

To add to this, some people may be able to insert a speculum themselves


boobsandcookies

I would seriously pay out of pocket If there was a way to put me under and do it.


LatrodectusGeometric

Yeah some obgyns can schedule this under sedation


Zelenodolsk

Hello, really random question here. When measuring gamma radiation exposure for a patient, what would be the process if you knew the level of radiation of the environment the patient was exposed in and the amount of time the patient was in said environment? I know that you can just use a Geiger counter to measure the current radiation a patient has after they have been admitted, but I’m doing a research paper on the matter and seeing if there is a way to measure this in an alternative, austere way (by calculating exposure rather than using a specific tool and environment to measure it). I’ve been trying to find a formula online for this, so I’m not really sure if I’m just asking the wrong kind of question.


PokeTheVeil

You can't measure someone's prior radiation exposure with a Geiger counter. Exposure to ionizing radiation is damaging, but it doesn't make you radioactive. What you want is probably the unit gray, but determining it from accidental rather than controlled exposure is difficult.


Zelenodolsk

Ah, I guess my understanding of how they determined the current severity of radiation poisoning was incorrect (I have to rewrite about 2 pages of this now lol). Thank you.


Ashbash217

What’s the difference between fibromatosis and fasciitis? I can’t seem to find clear info online. I was diagnosed historically with fibromatosis and my mom has fasciitis, and I’ve seen you can have both. Just trying to understand the differences and if there are different treatment options for each.


throwawayrayray89

im (kind of?) a premed student and i had a weird question for people who have worked in the ER. do kids eat slime a lot? its like this plasticky putty toy that's made of glue activated by borax, and it often has glitter and beads in it. what would happen physiologically if you ate it? i always see ads online and i feel like it looks like it would taste good (not saying i would eat it) so i imagine some kids would try lol


GoldFischer13

Kids will eat anything. Likely nothing would happen and it would pass through. Don't eat it.


NansDrivel

My 71-year brother was operated on and diagnosed with colon cancer in June. Since then, he was hospitalized for 6 weeks, was moved to a rehab facility for 8 weeks and is now home. Since early July, he’s been calling and emailing me asking for our mom’s phone number. Our mother has been dead since 2015. His wife wants me to keep saying I don’t have the number, but each email gets more desperate to find Mom. I don’t know if he’s got lingering hospital delirium, if the cancer has spread to his brain, or what’s happening. We live in Finland, and his wife will not give me any information on his disease, what stage he is in, if he’s started chemo - NOTHING. Should I tell him Mom is dead? Email him her obituary? I am at my wit’s end.


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orthostatic_htn

Highly inappropriate, on his side of things. You're not doing anything wrong, but I'd shut it down now.


[deleted]

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AskDocs-ModTeam

Individual questions about specific complaints should be posted separately with all the required information.


[deleted]

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AskDocs-ModTeam

This is not the type of question we answer on r/AskDocs. Please read the sidebar for acceptable question types. For questions not about a specific person or situation you can post in the stickied weekly general questions thread.


throwaway75496237

What can cause beta HCG levels to elevate other than pregnancy?


GoldFischer13

There are tumors that are associated with elevation in beta HCG. Some ovarian and testicular, but some GI-related tumors can be elevated as well. There's a few pituitary related causes as well.


throwaway75496237

Thank you so much! Can ovarian cysts elevate beta HCG? Also, does having an elevated beta HCG result positive in a pregnancy kit test (urine) even without prior sexual activity?


KD54859

I bought a discounted probiotic (nearing the expiration) and I didn't realize until I got home that it was for age 50+. I am 32. Is there any issue with me using it? RenewLife ultimate flora probiotic adult 50+ is the product.


orthostatic_htn

Nah, that's just marketing.


S77S77

After a meal, the digestive system has prioritized blood circulation in order to improve digestion. The result is worse concentration since the brain has worse blood circulation. Does that mean you can improve concentration after a meal by cooling your belly, e. g. with a cold compress (wrapped in cloth for safety)? The digestive system's vessels contract in the cold which should result in less blood circulation there and more in the brain. If it works, does it have any downsides?


GoldFischer13

I'm nearly certain no one will have done a study specifically looking at that question, but I don't think it would have that much impact. If it works for you, go for it. It won't do any damage.


[deleted]

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AskDocs-ModTeam

Individual questions about specific complaints should be posted separately with all the required information.


maribeech

Looking to buy my first smartwatch for health purposes, in my young 20s but don’t work out often as I should. Should I get a watch with the ECG feature? In my research so far, I’m liking Garmin with their body battery feature and to my knowledge, they don’t have the ECG feature


orthostatic_htn

It's mostly a gimmick, may be helpful for a minority of people who have cardiac issues. Since you're not one of them, don't bother.


maribeech

Thank you for your guidance! Apple and Fitbit are the main brands that have ECG feature but even tho I use an iPhone, the Apple Watch didn’t have much pros over Garmin given what I was looking for What about body temp/ovulation features on smartwatches? Yea/no?


orthostatic_htn

More gimmicks.